Published By : Animal Pharm Published Date : 2016-08-01 Category : Pharmaceutical & Healthcare Sub Category : Animal Pharmaceutical No. of Pages : 116

This report examines the current and potential animal health market in Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa comprises some of the poorest countries of the world with a population that is destined to increase exponentially in the coming decades with the concurrent increasing demand for food. In line with the other emerging economies, this will be accompanied by increasing demand for high quality animal protein as countries develop their wealth and middle classes emerge.
The report begins with a brief review of the global animal health industry and then discusses in detail the African market, demographics, growth drivers for African livestock, animal production systems and the need for veterinary medicines.
Production statistics for cattle, sheep and goats, pigs, poultry, companion animals and aquaculture are reviewed together with a discussion of animal types by region and country.
There is a review of veterinary legislation and the need for improved veterinary services.
The important animal diseases are covered, focussing mainly on tropical diseases but also reminding the reader that the production diseases of parasitism, respiratory and enteric disease are just as important as they are in developed countries. Diseases are discussed in the context of being vector-borne, zoonoses, transboundary etc.
There is an overview of the animal health industry in Africa including both global and regional companies. The regulatory systems for animal health products are detailed. Their status is highly variable between countries but in general there is relevant legislation but with some exceptions it is often not implemented or enforced rigorously.
To many companies Africa has to date been unattractive due to the problems of low market value and density, poor regulation, corruption, fake and counterfeit products, poor distribution networks, ineffective cold chain etc. However, others are grasping the opportunities and doing very well in finding valuable niches e.g. the poultry vaccine segment.


About the Author 6

Disclaimer 6

Executive Summary 7

1. Introduction 9

1.1 The global animal health market 9
1.2 Value of the global animal health market 11
1.3 Product categories 14
1.3.1 Pharmaceuticals 15
1.3.2 Vaccines 15
1.4 Structure of the animal health industry and the major global companies 16

2. The African market 18

2.1 Demographics 18
2.2 Growth drivers – the African livestock market 20
2.3 Veterinary medicines 22
2.3.1 Pharmaceuticals 22
2.3.2 Vaccine manufacturers 24

3. Geographical drivers of African livestock production 26

3.1 Geo-political description of Africa 26
3.2 Animal production in Africa 32
3.3 Drivers for change in livestock production 34

4. African livestock production statistics 37

4.1 Species and breeds 37
4.1.1 Small ruminants 40
4.1.2 Poultry 42
4.1.3 Pigs 42
4.1.4 Companion animals in Africa 44
4.1.5 Aquaculture 45
4.2 Types of animal production by Country / Region 46
4.2.1 Sub Saharan Africa 46
4.2.2 East Africa 47 Kenya 48
4.2.3 Northern Africa 50 Morocco 50
4.2.4 West Africa 50
4.2.5 Southern Africa 51

5. Veterinary services in Africa 53

5.1 Regional veterinary services in Africa 53
5.1.1 East Africa 53 Kenya 54 Uganda 54 Tanzania 54 Ethiopia 55
5.1.2 Southern Africa 55 South Africa 56 Malawi 57 Burkina Faso 59 Senegal 59 Mali 59 Nigeria 60 Ghana 60
5.2 The Inter African Bureau for Animal Resources 60
5.2.1 The Livestock Development Strategy for Africa (LiDeSA) 61

6. Important animal diseases in Africa 64

6.1 General background 64
6.2 Vector-borne diseases 67
6.2.1 African Horse Sickness 67
6.2.2 Bluetongue 68
6.2.3 Lumpy skin disease 68
6.3 Tick-borne diseases 69
6.3.1 East Coast fever 70
6.4 Zoonotic diseases 74
6.4.1 Brucellosis 74
6.4.2 Rabies 74
6.4.3 Cysticercosis 75
6.4.4 Leptospirosis 76
6.4.5 Rift Valley fever 77
6.4.6 Trypanosomiosis 77
6.4.7 Avian influenza 78
6.5 Transboundary diseases 80
6.5.1 Peste de Petits Ruminants (PPR) 80
6.5.2 Foot and mouth disease 82
6.5.3 Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia 83
6.6 Companion animals 84
6.6.1 Common diseases of companion animals 84 Leishmaniases 84 Babesiosis 84
6.7 The potential effects of climate change 85

7. Animal health products and market needs in Africa 88

7.1 The animal health industry in Africa 88
7.1.1 The global companies 88 Ceva Animal Health (Pty) Ltd 88 Zoetis 88 Merial 89 MSD Animal Health 89 Eli Lilly 89
7.1.2 Regional African companies 90 Bupo Animal Health 90 Afrivet 90 MCI Sante Animale 90 LANAVET 91 Deltamune (Pty) Ltd, 91 Immuno-Vet Services (Pty) Ltd. 91 Biotech Laboratories (Pty) Ltd 92 Dawa Limited 92 Cipla Medpro 92
7.1.3 NGOs and the public-private sector 92 The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) 93 GALVMed (Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines) 94 The World Animal Health Organisation (OIE) 94 Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) 95 World Bank Group 96 Farm Africa 96 The International Livestock Research Institute 97 Other NGOs and donors 97

8. Regulation of veterinary medicines in Africa 98

9. Trends and future outlook 107

9.1 Africa as a viable market for the AH industry 107

References 110

Tables & Figures

Table 1. Summary of the major characteristics of the global animal health market 2013. 13
Table 2. List of the ten largest global animal health companies based on their sales revenues for 2015 (Source: Animal Pharm). 16
Table 3. Examples of sub Saharan African vaccine manufacturing companies / institutes. 24
Table 4. Additional regional vaccine manufacturers in Africa 25
Table 5. The six geographical sub regions of Africa (United Nations) 28
Table 6. The top 10 African countries in terms of Nominal GDP ($ Billions; data source IMF world Economic Outlook (WEO), October 2015) 30
Table 7. Total populations of various domestic species in Africa 2014 (source FAOSTAT) 37
Table 8. Regional livestock populations (2014) in Africa (data source FAOSTAT, World Bank) 37
Table 9. Numbers of livestock species in selected east African countries (millions; source: FAO) 48
Table 10. Summary of the legislation governing the Veterinary Profession in the EAC (source Veterinary Services in the EAC - A Report prepared to facilitate MRA Negotiations for Veterinary Professionals (EAC 2015). 53
Table 11. Summary of the legislation governing the Veterinary Profession in some of the ECOWAS countries (source: GALVmed report 2015 and *FAO WAHIS) 58
Table 12. Detailed sub-goals within Goal 2 of the LiDeSA strategy for animal health improvement in Africa 62
Table 13. List of the major infectious diseases of Livestock in Africa 66
Table 14. Reported losses to major transboundary diseases in Africa 86
Table 15. Some regulatory agencies for veterinary products in East Africa 99
Table 16. Summary of the GALVmed report (2105) on registration of veterinary products in Africa 101
Table 17. Summary of registration procedures in selected African countries (sources: various) 102

Figure 1. Distribution of Animal health care market by volume 2014 (data source Statista 2016). 11
Figure 2. Distribution of Animal health care market by territory 2014 (data source Statista 2016). 12
Figure 3. Distribution of Animal health care market by territory 2014 (data source Statista 2016). 12
Figure 4. Distribution of global animal health market by species for 2011 (data source: Statista: 13
Figure 5. The global animal health market between 2002 and 2014 with a projection out to 2017. (data source: Statista). 14
Figure 6. The top ten global animal health companies in 2015 (Source: Animal Pharm) 17
Figure 7. Map of Africa illustrating the five geographical regions 19
Figure 8. Diagrammatic representation of sequential economic development in low and middle income countries 20
Figure 9. Dr Lieve Lynen of VetAgro Ltd. Tanzania, preparing ECF vaccine for use in Masai cattle in northern Tanzania (2009). 21
Figure 10. Stocks of veterinary medicines in an animal health pharmacy in Uganda 23
Figure 11. The Centre for Ticks and Tick-borne disease, Lilongwe, Malawi, website 25
Figure 12. World political map showing continental Africa in the centre 26
Figure 13. Map of Africa showing the main climatic regions 27
Figure 14. Physical map of Africa showing the Sahara desert to the north and the Indian and Atlantic oceans to the east and west respectively 28
Figure 15. Political map of Africa showing the relative land sizes of different countries 29
Figure 16. Map of relative economic activity also showing concentrations of different agricultural activities 31
Figure 17. Map of Africa showing the areas of differential concentrations of poor livestock keepers (Source: T. Robinson et al 2011, International Livestock Reseach Institute) 31
Figure 18. The website of the African Union – Inter-African Bureau of Animal Resources 32
Figure 19. An illustration of the central importance of livestock production, in relation to climate, economics, globalisation and human wellbeing 35
Figure 20. Predicted regional growth in livestock production up to 2050 (Herrero et al. 2014) 35
Figure 21. Map of livestock production systems by climate zone (source: T. Robinson et al. ILRI) 38
Figure 22. Distribution of cattle in Africa (source: ILRI) 40
Figure 23. Distribution of ruminants in Africa (source: ILRI) 41
Figure 24. Regional distribution of extensive and intensive poultry production (source: ILRI) 42
Figure 25. A case study of pig production in Uganda 43
Figure 26. Some semi-intensive pig farms in Uganda 43
Figure 27. Website of Worldfish, an NGO dedicated to aquaculture in the developing world 46
Figure 28. Forecasts of growth in GDP in sub-Saharan Africa and individual African countries 47
Figure 29. Livestock commodity production in Kenya from the 1960s projected to 2050 (Source: T. Robinson, March 2015 published in Science) 48
Figure 30. SADC annual publication of animal health statistics 56
Figure 31. The AU-IBAR Strategic plan document 61
Figure 32. Histogram showing relative financial losses due to livestock disease in Africa (source: ILRI) 65
Figure 33. A bull with lumpy skin disease 69
Figure 34. The T. parva lifecycle (after Nene et al., 2016) 71
Figure 35. The ECF-ITM registration dossier and Kenyan and Tanzanian marketing authorisations 72
Figure 36. The Taenia solium life cycle 75
Figure 37. Geographic distribution of acute human leptospirosis and confirmed animal Leptospira spp. infection in Africa. (Source Allan et al., 2015) 76
Figure 38. Website of the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Campaign 78
Figure 39. Backyard slaughtering and processing chickens in China 79
Figure 40. Global distribution of zoonotic disease (source: ILRI) 80
Figure 41. Extract from BMGF website on Livestock 93
Figure 42. Q&A session on the BMGF website 93
Figure 43. The Sidai Africa website 96
Figure 44. The Masaka Vet Pharmacy Uganda 105