Feed Additives for Animal Nutrition 2016
Published By : Animal Pharm Published Date : 2016-09-01 Category : Food & Beverages Sub Category : Animal Feed No. of Pages : 85

Animal nutrition is a major business activity across the world and feed additives make an important contribution to all aspects of animal production. With food security and feed additive research and development inextricably linked, the feed additive industry remains an important player in global animal-origin food production for the foreseeable future.
The development and introduction of various new feed additives is a major and practical solution to improving the efficiency of animal production, alleviating environmental pollution, maintaining animal health and welfare, and ensuring that food is safe and of good quality. However, the challenge for the feed additive industry is to continue improving animal productivity so that more human food can be obtained from the limited availability of feed raw material.
This thoroughly revised and updated report covers the complex and divergent legislative requirements for feed additives in the EU and USA. It also includes chapters on the key roles of organic and inorganic acids; antioxidants and autoxidation; flavours; colourants; enzymes; emulsifying and stabilising agents, thickeners and gelling agents; micro-organisms; amino acids; mycotoxin control additives; phytochemicals and phytogenic feed additives; and cocciodiostats and histomonostats.
It also delves in the improvements that feed additives may have on overall animal health and performance, which can influence the characteristics of human food products. Additionally, feed additives can improve the structure of pellet quality, for example, and enhance shelf-life by preventing microbial spoilage and autoxidation of feeds.

About the Author 3
Disclaimer 3
Executive Summary 4
1. Introduction 5
2. Feed Additive Legislation 11
3. Organic and Inorganic Acids 17
4. Antioxidants and Autoxidation 22
5. Flavours 26
6. Colorants 30
7. Enzymes 35
8. Emulsifying and Stabilising Agents, Thickeners and Gelling Agents 40
9. Micro-Organisms 42
10. Amino Acids 46
11. Mycotoxin Control Additives 50
12. Phytochemicals and Phytogenic Feed Additives 56
13. Cocciodiostats and Histomonostats 62
14. The Future for Feed Additives 67
15. Conclusion 74
References 75


Figures & Tables
Table 1. Major annual antibiotic use in animal production in the USA in 2014 9
Table 2. Volume of animal feed production in the EU-28 in 2014 and 2015 10
Table 3. Functional groups of feed additive that contain organic acids 17
Table 4. Most common organic acids used as feed additives 17
Table 5. Effect of protected sodium butyrate on colonization of gastrointestinal organs in broiler
chickens, orally inoculated with 10 5 cfu of Salmonella Enteriditis five days posthatch 19
Table 6. Global market value of organic acids used in animal nutrition 20
Table 7. Antioxidants permitted for use in foods in the European Union 24
Table 8. Some companies involved in feed flavour manufacture and sales 28
Table 9. Major colorants permitted for use in feed in the EU and their commercial origin 31
Table 10. Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in various feed raw materials 36
Table 11. Enzymes used as feed additives and their origin 38
Figure 1. The structure of lysophospholipids 41
Table 12. Micro-organisms authorised as silage additives 42
Table 13. Micro-organism authorised as probiotics 44
Table 14. Amino acids authorized as nutritional additives. 47
Table 15. Major mycotoxins found in feed raw materials and associated toxigenic mould species 50
Table 16. Aflatoxin B1 content of feedstuffs permitted in the European Union 51
Table 17. Some guidance values for mycotoxins proposed by the EU in animal feed materials 52
Table 18. Plants used in phytochemical feed additives 56
Table 19. Coccidiostats authorised for use in the EU 63
Table 20. Effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on gastrointestinal lesion scores and mortalities of broiler chicks after infection with Eimeria tenella 64
Figure 2. The production chain from feed raw materials to human food 68
Figure 3. Conversion pathway of basic raw materials into human foods of plant and of animal origin 69
Table 21. Broiler growth characteristics in 1950, 1978 and 2005 70
Table 22. The food production chain and associated feed additives 74